Huge changes at the molecular level with single bout of aerobic exercise.
An acute bout of aerobic exercise caused extensive changes in 9,815 molecules that regulate biological processes including energy metabolism, oxidative stress, immune response, and tissue repair.
The new study also revealed a complex role of the post-exercise inflammatory response with higher levels of inflammatory and growth factors at 15 min post-recovery that was associated with higher peak VO2.
There were many differences in biological processes impacted by exercise in metabolically healthy vs. unhealthy individuals. People with insulin resistance had a reduced inflammatory response and a reduced efficiency to oxidize free fatty acids, produce energy, and restore energy homeostasis.